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Martin Guzi is a post-doctoral researcher at Masaryk University. He obtained a master’s degree in mathematics at Comenius University in Bratislava and a PhD in Economics at CERGE-EI in 2013. In his empirical research he focuses on work migration, income adequacy, work careers of university graduates, social welfare programs, and subjective well-being.
In the paper we discuss the recent development of demand for tertiary education in Slovakia. The expansion of tertiary education over the last two decades considerably increased the chances of applicants to be accepted to schools. The number of students enrolled in Slovak tertiary institutions reached maximum in 2008 but their numbers are largely decreasing in the recent years. The primary causes behind this trend are the unfavorable demographic development and the increasing number of students who choose to study abroad. We employ the information from the database of all applications sent to Slovak universities during the last ten years. Importantly we also look at the demand for study programs which are provided by different institutions in order to confirm whether the better quality institutions are relatively more demanded. Furthermore we evaluate the changes in the demand for university programs vis-à-vis the recent economic recession and the study opportunities available to Slovak young people across the whole EU. We hypothesize that economic crisis changed the preferences of young people for tertiary education with respect to their future employment prospects in the labor market. The complementary information about Slovak students enrolled in the Czech universities is obtained to understand their motivations to study abroad. The findings of the paper contribute to the discussion about the future development of Slovak higher education.
Cezar Hâj is a public policy expert at the Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI), where he coordinates the activities within the project "Internationalization, Equity and University Management". He holds a PhD degree in political science at the National School for Political and Administrative Studies in Bucharest. Previously, Cezar Haj worked as a World Bank consultant. He was also a member of the Bologna Secretariat (2010-2012), when he was part of the team that implemented the Bologna Process work plan 2009-2012 and organized the Bucharest Ministerial Conference (2012) and the Third Bologna Policy Forum, under the coordination of the Romanian Ministry of Education and the chairs of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).
Equity in the Romanian Higher Education System. A national perspective on the existing policies and future challenges
The contribution will focus on an analysis of the main national policies with an impact on the equity of the Romanian higher education system. In this context, key data on student participation, progression and completion of studies will be introduced, including the case of under-represented groups. In terms of policies, the contribution will address policies regarding: admission, distribution of subsidized study places and student support systems (scholarships, student dorm subsidies, etc). In order to support the conclusions presented, relevant data from a student questionnaire applied to more than 1000 students, interviews with university representatives and national data analysis focusing on the main challenges towards a more equitable higher education in Romania will be used.
Ernő Keszei is professor of chemistry at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, and head of the National Bologna Board in Hungary. He represents Hungary in the BFUG since 2010 and acted as co-chair of the BFUG in 2010 and 2011. He was the head of the Department of Physical Chemistry at Eötvös Loránd University from 1993 to 2007, and later the director of the Institute of Chemistry for a shorter period. He played an active role in the formation of the Doctoral School for Chemistry in 1994 and its reorganisation in 2001. He was an elected member of the Senate at Eötvös Loránd University for 10 years. He served as the vice-rector for science, research and innovation at Eötvös Loránd University from 2010 to 2013. He participated in several international cooperative projects in chemical topics with European and Northern American universities.
Financing universities in post-communist countries – a comparative study
The typical European tradition from the 18th century for financing universities was either a state support, or donation of properties to the institutions for a prosperous functioning. This tradition has changed from the last quarter of the 20th century on. Neither the income of properties, nor the (typically decreasing) state support were sufficient to maintain the necessary standards of culture, knowledge and especially research at universities. The situation is most dramatic in Eastern European post-communist countries, where properties were confiscated a long time ago, and state support is rather scarce due to the bad economic situation. In the presentation, there will be data to illustrate the dramatic situation of university research in the region, and some outline of possible strategies to follow for a catch-up in this respect.
Gergely Kováts is the vice director of Center for International Higher Education Studies (CIHES), Corvinus University of Budapest, and also the senior lecturer of the Institute of Management, Faculty of Business Administration. He received his PhD from Corvinus University of Budapest in 2013. He has been serving as the secretary of the Office for Quality Development since 2007. His main fields of interest are institutional management and governance, higher education policy and funding, but he also teaches and pursuit research in organizational theory and public management.
Recent developments in the autonomy and governance of higher education institutions in Hungary
After the change of regime in 1989 Hungarian higher education started to return to its Humboldtian tradition. It was widely accepted that academic freedom could be guaranteed by high degree of institutional autonomy manifested especially in structures of self-governance and avoidance of direct state supervision/interventions. Attempts to introduce boards and other supervising bodies were successfully resisted until 2011. The new government coming into power in 2010, however, introduced new mechanisms of supervision and changed institutional governance and reduced autonomy considerably. Changes in the selection of rectors, the appearance of state-appointed financial inspectors and the newly appointed Chancellors responsible for the finance, maintenance and administration of institutions are important milestones in this process.
Liudvika Leisyte is Professor of Higher Education at the Center for Higher Education Studies at the Technical University of Dortmund. She received PhD from CHEPS, University of Twente in 2007 and held a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for European Studies at Harvard University in 2008/09. Leisyte has widely published on changing academic work, higher education and research governance and management, with the paper on professional autonomy winning the Early Career Best Paper award in PRIME conference in 2008.
The Transformation of University Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: its Antecedents and Consequences
This paper focuses on the change in governance and management of universities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from a multi-level perspective, discussing the impact of changing institutional logics on university management capacities and university structures. The author draws on the typology of governance mechanisms in higher education: academic self-regulation, competition for resources, managerial self-guidance, stakeholder guidance and state control, arguing that quasi-market logic has permeated to a larger degree the systems with a more Napoleonic and Soviet-type tradition of centralized leadership and management, and that universities across CEE have acquired more self-management capacities coupled with stronger stakeholder guidance. However, the decentralization within higher education institutions, and the power of academic oligarchy are still present, especially in the systems following the Humboldtian higher education tradition.
Liviu Matei is CEU's Provost and Pro-Rector and Professor in the Department of Public Policy. He served as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer from 2008 to 2014, and as Academic Secretary of CEU from 1999 to 2008. He studied philosophy and psychology at Babes-Bolyai University Cluj, and Sociology at Bucharest University, Romania. He received his PhD from the latter. He developed a particular interest in higher education policy, as a researcher and a practitioner. He worked as a Director General for International Relations at the Romanian Ministry of Education, consulted for UNESCO, OSCE, and the Council of Europe. He has been active in several research/policy projects of the European University Association. Matei is a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of the European Higher Education Area, member of the Board of the International Higher Education Support Program, and member of the GRE European Advisory Council.
Addressing challenges in higher education in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe undertook major reforms in higher education in the last 15-20 years. These reforms were meant to address realities and challenges: massification, internationalization, globalization, new societal expectations for higher education, etc. Both challenges and answers in these countries, however, included elements that were specific to the region. Primarily, they had to overcome the communist past and to integrate in the European Union.
Despite significant differences at national level, reform efforts and developments in higher education have been in a way “predictable”, or at least not surprising in retrospect. The situation is now changing. The Bologna Process is being used less as a positive reference and its capacity to generate new ideas and initiatives is at best uncertain. The old framework informing higher education policies for the region is vanning away and it is not clear what will emerge as a replacement. The paper discusses new and emerging challenges in higher education of Central Europe and also how these challenges might be addressed in a radically changing policy context.
Hans Pechar is a professor of higher education at Alpen Adria University, Vienna location. The focus of his research is comparative higher education and economics of higher education. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at the Center for Studies in Higher Education (CSHE), UC Berkeley and a frequent guest professor at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Up until 2014, he represented Austria in the governing board of OECD CERI. Most recently, his publications have addressed topics of policies of access to higher education, governance of Austrian universities, and equity in education.
Recent reforms in Austrian higher education: from state agencies to public enterprises
The lecture will start with a brief account of the historical legacy of Austrian higher education - the counterreformation of the early modern age, the Humboldtian tradition of the 19th century, and the shift from elite to mass higher education in the 1960s. The focus will be on the reforms of the 1990s and 2000s: a fundamental change in the governance of universities - from state agencies to public enterprises - and the introduction of a non-university sector.
Finally, present challenges will be addressed, such as the financial stringencies, the need for further diversification of higher learning, and the need to improve the employment conditions of junior academics.
Aleš Vlk obtained his master degree in sociology at the Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Arts. In 2006 he received his doctoral degree at the Center for Higher Education Policy (CHEPS), University of Twente in the Netherlands. In his professional career he has worked shortly at the European University Association (EUA) in Brussels, at the governmental investment agency Czechinvest, and at the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic as the advisor to the minister. Since 2008 he has been a managing partner of alevia, a company focused on consulting, training and projects in the area of human resources development, education and research & development. He has been working mainly as a lecturer, facilitator and moderator. Aleš is currently teaching R&D policy as an external fellow at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague.
Challenges for modern universities: Finding the balance between teaching, research and third role
A traditional university in Central and Eastern Europe has been facing many challenges during its history. Some challenges were rather unique due to political factors (for example being a part of the communist system), while others have been very similar to those faces by their western European counterparts such as incorporating research, dealing with massification, implementing the Bologna system, finding its role as a regional player and a part of the innovation system, etc.
Many challenges are related to traditional higher education goals. First of all, universities try to fulfil their goals in teaching. The Czech Republic as well as in many other countries has been witnessing a huge demographic decline; the weakest cohorts are about to leave the secondary education system. Secondly, an unprecedented financial means have been poured through European Union Structural Funds (EU SF) into higher education research infrastructure. A question of sustainability has been discussed especially in connection with new EU state aid rules. Finally, a university sector as a part of innovation process – for example a role of commercialization of scientific outputs – has been questioned.
Jerzy Woźnicki, full professor at the Warsaw University of Technology (PW). He held the position of dean of the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology at the Warsaw University of Technology and later Rector of this University (1996-2002), President of the Conference of Rectors of Polish Universities of Technology. Currently (from 2002 till now) J. Woźnicki is a President of the Think-tank Polish Rectors Foundation - Institute of Knowledge Society and President of the National Council for Science and Higher Education in Poland. He was a member of the Editorial Board of “Higher Education in Europe” quarterly review of the UNESCO-CEPES. He is the author of about 120 publications, including the monograph “The University as an institutions of public domain: the polish perspective” (2009) published by Unesco-Cepes.
The selected deregulation requirements towards HES reforms in Poland
The paper presents results of the project “Deregulation in Higher Education " - the latest joint initiative of the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland (CRASP) and Think-tank Polish Rectors Foundation - Institute of knowledge Society (PRF&IKS), intended to initiate the process of the higher education system (HES) deregulation. Firstly, author presents recommendations concerning the scope of the needed regulation together with justification of the necessary state interference in the functioning of the HES. Secondly, data illustrating the current state of overregulation in the Polish higher education system is presented. Pointing out the fundamental values in the lawmaking process, such as the principle of subsidiarity, proportionality, predictability and continuity of the rules, the requirements of so-called “good legislation” are examined. In conclusion, the selected strategic postulates are formulated for the legislative activities in the field of higher education in Poland till 2020.