ParallelParallel Sections

Parallel sessions

The detailed abstracts of the parallel session presentations are available on this page.They are also available in the book of abstracts which you can download.

All the presentations presented at the conference (including the keynote presentations) can be downloaded in one .zip file by clicking here (73MB).


1. Thinking about university governance

Friday, 10.00-11.30, Faculty Club

Chair: Pusa NASTASE (Central European University)


1. Zoltán Rónay: Consistory – the obscure subject of state control

Zoltán Rónay (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)


The Government with the help of its majority in Hungarian Parliament has modified the Act on Higher Education and reorganised the management of state higher education institutes. In the first step, the legal institute of chancellor was introduced. This new type resulted in a dual structured management system in 2014. In the last four years, the Hungarian literature analysed the main characteristics and problems of chancellor system. The other legal institute was the consistory which got less interest in scientific works. While the argument of the modification bill did not contain relevant information about the real cause of the introduction of the consistory, some authors investigated the possible reasons (Bárány 2015, Keczer 2016, Kováts 2016, Veres & Golovics 2016). Despite the jurisdiction of consistory can influence the operation of higher education institutions, because it has veto right connection with most meaningful topics, e.g., developing plan of the institution, strategy of research, developing and innovation, acceptance of budget and report, and so on. With veto right in these topics, consistory has strong tools to delimit the autonomy of higher education institutes directly and indirectly. Moreover, this all is in close connection to the quality and quality insurance and their conditions of universities.

The recent presentation is an actualised, and rewritten version of the summary of former research that was finalised in the spring of 2018 and was presented in Hungarian Conference on Educational Research organised by Hungarian Educational Research Association in 2018. This research is based on the following three points of view and was realised by the following methodology:

• the legal framework of consistory was explored with the method of document analysis;

• research of the operational frameworks of similar bodies with the method of international comparison of law (Braukmann 2004, De Groof et al. 1998, Kaplin & Lee 2013, Russo 2013);

• study the level of transparency of consistories with the method of empirical research – mixed (qualitative and quantitative) method of document analysis.

In the first step, we researched how detailed the regulation is in acts and decrees in connection with consistory. After that, we tried to classify consistory with the help of standards like decision-maker, adviser, and supervisor. Finally, we analysed the content of state universities’ websites in relation to information of consistories, e.g., list and CVs of members, decisions, regulations of working order. As this research was realised before the general elections in Hungary, and the old-new government began the work with creating new bills including the modification of national higher education act, we were curious whether any changes can be recognised in connection with regulation and/or operation (transparency level) of the consistory. This presentation summarises this second research, offering a comparison of the two different periods.


Bárány, V. Fanny (2015): A felsőoktatás-igazgatás rendszerének átalakítása Magyarországon. Kodifikáció és Közigazgatás, 4(1), 89-99.

Braukmann, Michael (2004): Mangelnde demokratische Legitimation und funktionswidrige Organisationsstrukturen der niedersächsischen Stiftungsuniversitäten. Juristenzeitung, 59(13), 662-666.

De Groof, Jan, Švec, Juraj & Neave, Guy (1998): Democracy and governance in higher education, The Hague, London, Boston: Kluwer Law International

Gross, Thomas: Das Kuratorium. Hochschulautonomie durch institutionalisierte Kooperation? Die Öffentliche Verwaltung, 52(21), 895-902.

Kaplin, William A. & Lee, Barbara A. (2013): The Law of Higher Education, Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons inc, 2013

Keczer, Gabriella (2016): Variációk egy témára – az állami kontroll eszközei a felsőoktatásban, in: Kováts (eds.): A kancellári rendszer bevezetése a magyar felsőoktatásban. Tapasztalatok és várakozások. Budapest: Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Nemzetközi Felsőoktatási Kutatások Központja, 58-84.

Kováts, Gergely (2016): Előszó, in: Kováts (eds.): A kancellári rendszer bevezetése a magyar felsőoktatásban. Tapasztalatok és várakozások. Budapest: Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Nemzetközi Felsőoktatási Kutatások Központja, 5-6.

Russo, Charles J. (eds.) (2013): Handbook of Comparative Higher Education Law. Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Education

2. Renata Hall: How can the student voice be heard?

Renata Hall (MESA10, Slovakia)


At every higher education-related gathering it is noted that the student voice must be heard. But what does hearing the student voice mean? Under what conditions is this voice loud and meaningful? The present paper examines these questions with regard to Slovak higher education (HE). Slovak students have relatively strong formal representation. Based on the HE Law, the proportion of students on academic senates at faculty and university level must be at least one third. The senates have a key role in governing HE institutions (HEIs). For example, they elect executives (deans and the rector), approve study programs and HEI budgets. 

Thus one could say that students have a real say in HEI governance. Yet this supposition is open to question. Firstly, there is low student participation in electing their representatives to the senates. Secondly, while some groups of students are under-represented (e.g. part-time students and international students), others, such as PhD students, are over-represented. With regard to the PhD students there is another question: whose views do they represent? Are these students’ views or early career-academics’ views? From our data it appears that PhD students see themselves in the middle of these two roles, while the BA and MA students perceive them more as junior faculty members. 

Our data also show that the mandate of the student senate members is weakened as the common students are neither familiar with who their representatives are, nor with what they are promoting in the senate. Concurrently, the student senate members noted during interviews a low level of interest from common students in senate issues. Based on these findings one might question whether the voice of students is being transmitted through their representation in the academic senates. Hence the paper will also analyse whether the senates per se represent the most adequate platform for student representation. If so, how should it be changed so that it represents students’ interests better? Or should students rather be involved in HEI life in a different way (e.g. at micro level, providing feedback on their courses and teachers)? Or should we look for a combination of different channels for transmitting the student voice?

The paper will discuss stated questions based on qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data come from semi-structured individual and group interviews with almost 140 interviewees. Based on the analysis of the qualitative data, we subsequently designed questionnaires. In this paper, the students’ responses to those questionnaires (3835 respondents on BA and MA level and 614 on PhD level) are used. The data were gathered in 2017 and in 2018 as part of the Learning Makes Sense project aiming at proposing education reform from pre-school to tertiary level, based on evidence, good and bad practices, and reflection on new trends such as artificial intelligence, digitalization and automation.

3. Gabriella Keczer: ’Best Practice’ Organizational and Management Solutions in some Successful Higher Education Institutions

Gabriella Keczer (University of Szeged, Hungary)


The higher education arena is characterized by a strong competition of universities for the best students, for resources and cutting-edge faculty, while stakeholders expect them to provide more with less. Thus, it is vital to find solutions that make higher education institutions more competitive and efficient.

A desk research was carried out focusing on ten higher education institutions that proved to be excellent in several indicators in the U-Multirank system. U-Multirank assesses higher education institutions across five dimensions: teaching and learning, research, knowledge transfer, international orientation and regional development, thus, it gives a comprehensive picture of the performance of a university. When selecting the institutions to be studied, universities from the different regions of Europe were deliberately included –  Scandinavian, Western and Southern European institutions, as well as universities from the former communist bloc were analyzed – and a North-American institution was added to have an outlook to another continent. 

The aim of the research was to find organizational and management solutions that may facilitate a more efficient operation, foster development and excellence, and support financial sustainability. The work was carried out by gathering and analyzing publicly available data and information on the homepages of the institutions. One of the noteworthy conclusions of the research is just the fact that most of the institutions that we studied operate rather transparently, providing rich data on their homepages. 

During the research, several ’best practice’ solutions were identified, including well-grounded and well-elaborated strategic planning along with consistent development; clever organizational solutions that support meeting the strategic goals; mutually beneficial networking and strategic alliances between different universities as well as between higher education institutions and other organizations; transparency, visibility and communication that strengthen trust, attract funding and invite cooperation. The example of some universities in the post-communist countries shows that the lag can be reduced with professionalism in governance and management.

4. Judit Simon – Ágnes Zsóka: Management challenges of the 25 years of DSG

Judit Simon (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Ágnes Zsóka (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)


The German speaking Study Program in Business Administration (Deutschsprachiger Studiengang in Betriebswirtschaftslehre – DSG) of Corvinus Business School, Corvinus University of Budapest has been operating for 25 years, since 1993, in cooperation with the University Passau. 

First attempts to build up a program were based on the bilateral cooperation of the two universities started in the 1980’s. The aim of the program was to provide an additional qualification opportunity in German language to Hungarian students of our university , covering all major fields of business administration. In addition to the Corvinus diploma, the program offers a certificate to BA students, based on 10 courses in German. On MA level, DSG offers a double-degree program with the university of Passau, which provides two diploma to the participating students of both universities. 

The program was originally built up via bottom-up management efforts. 

Management and marketing challenges of the program were the following: 

• cooperation between the two universities on the levels of teaching, administration and leadership 

• harmonization of programs, teaching materials, teaching methods, especially after entering into the Bologna process

• harmonization of legal aspects (responsibilities, certificates, exams etc.)

• quality insurance of the program (quality of teaching materials, human resources, processes etc.)

• involvement and motivation of Hungarian teaching staff to contribute to the program on high professional level and language quality 

• marketing of the program towards students: why is it worth joining this additional program of the university

• marketing of the program towards the business world in Hungary: companies, chamber of industry and commerce etc. 

• contacting and cooperation with representatives of the German government: the German Embassy in Budapest and the funding institution of the German government (DAAD)

As a result of management efforts of both universities, the program is one of the most successful programs of the so-called MOE-programs of the DAAD (MOE-programs: Middle- and Eastern Europe programs) and the most successful German speaking study program of the Corvinus University of Budapest.  

At the 25 years jubilee conference of the DSG program, 12. June, 2018, an additional contract, a Research Agreement was signed by the Rectors and Deans of both universities, in order to extend the successful cooperation for the field of scientific research in the future. 

2. Teaching and Learning and Quality

Friday, 10.00-11.30, Room 311

Chair: Antal PIROSS (Corvinus University of Budapest)


5. Zombor Berezvai – Gergő Lukáts – Roland Molontay: How financially rewarding student evaluation affect grade inflation? Evidence from a natural experiment

Zombor Berezvai (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Gergő Lukáts (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Roland Molontay (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)

This paper aims to analyze how financially rewarding student evaluation of teaching (SET) scores can impact the grading behavior of the teachers. Since the late 20th century, SET scores are gaining significance and it became an important factor in deciding the quality of teaching around the world. In many universities, SET scores are used for determining promotion, tenure and other financial benefits for professors.

At the same time, universities noticed that although students were spending less time studying, they were receiving increasingly higher grades from their teachers. For example, the statistics of the homepage indicate that the average grades at Duke, Northwestern and the University of North Carolina increased by around 0.2 per decade. Grade inflation causes grade compression at the upper end of the distribution, and by now, over half of the students at top schools, like Harvard, graduate with honors, without any opportunity for the top students to stand out.

As a result, SET scores and grade inflation became significant topics of interest for researchers, with many studies showing strong positive correlation between the grade received from the teacher, and the SET score given by a student. The positive correlation remains after controlling for the potential endogeneity using panel data models or the instrumental variable approach.

Due to the positive impact of grade on SET scores, financially rewarding SET scores might increase grade inflation. This hypothesis was tested by exploiting a natural experiment happened in a Hungarian higher education institution. In the second half of 2016, a new differentiated remuneration system was introduced in this university affecting full-time teachers, but not half-time teachers and visiting lecturers. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we identified how the grading behavior of full-time teachers altered after the policy change compared to the non-full-time teachers.

Results indicate that the policy change significantly increased grade inflation by 0.1 on average. This effect is arising from seminars, and we did not find any effect analyzing the lecture subsample. However, full-time lecturers were stricter in terms of grading compared to their non-full-time peers before the policy change. Overall, the effect of the policy change showed the elimination of this gap. However, the long-run impact might be different that can be assessed by future research.

6. Annamaria Kazai Ónodi: Subjective factors of course evaluation. Can we rely on undergraduates’ opinion?

Annamaria Kazai Ónodi (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)


Quality assurance processes in higher education have become increasingly common in Europe and have had a crucial role in improving the quality of Hungarian education. Among the numerous tools, course evaluation by students is an important element to achieve this goal. Universities have to pay more and more attention to undergraduates’ satisfaction for different reasons so course evaluation as an information source has become more and more valuable. However, can we completely rely on undergraduates’ feedback? What kind of distortion factors do we face in connection with it? In order to address this question, we have compiled a database using the Business Economics course evaluation of 2174 students at Corvinus University of Budapest during three semesters. As the first step we investigated the relationships among the factors present in the course evaluation. The second step was to involve the subjective factors from other databases, for example average marks and teachers’ characteristics, in order to analyse their influence on overall student satisfaction. The regression analysis confirmed that student satisfaction has inexplicable elements although seminars and seminar leaders had the greatest impact.

7. Marcell Nagy – Roland Molontay – Bálint Csabay: Predictive power of admission point score and its variants on academic performance

Marcell Nagy (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Roland Molontay (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Bálint Csabay (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)


An important issue in higher education management is to find the most suitable admission procedure that offers admission to those students who can eventually graduate successfully and denies admission to those who may have difficulty obtaining a degree. The admission procedure is usually carried out by ranking the students according to an admission point score (APS). Considering a proper ranking, a student with higher score will have better university performance. On the other hand, using a misconstructed admission procedure, universities may deny the admission of students who could possibly graduate and offers admission to those who could not, that is associated with considerable social and economic costs. 

Students applying to colleges in Hungary gain a nationally standardized admission point score, that mostly relies on the secondary school performance and on the results of the matura exams. In this study, we use statistical learning methods to analyze the predictive power of admission point score on university performance, in particular on dropping out and on the qualification of diploma. This study is built on data of 9500 undergraduate students from Budapest University of Technology and Economics enrolled between 2012 and 2017 and finished their bachelor studies either by graduation or dropping out. The data from Neptun educational administration system have been provided by the Central Academic Office of the university. 

 In order to investigate the optimality of the current APS, we define new alternatives by modifying the calculation of the score, and then investigate which point score reflects more the later university performance. We find that the current APS is a relatively accurate predictor of the university performance.

We measure the predictive power of the point scores according to three different approaches:

1. When the target variable is the binary status (graduated or dropped out), we plot the ROC curves for each point score, i.e. we calculate the true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR) at different threshold settings of the points scores.

2. When the target variable is the numeric qualification of diploma, we simply calculate its correlation with the point scores.

3. Finally we apply Tobit regression model, where the explanatory variable is the point score and the target variable is the qualification of the diploma, which is clearly censored for dropped out students.


3. Students with advantages and disadvantages?

Friday, 10.00-11.30, Room 2009

Chair: Zsuzsanna GÉRING (Budapest Business School)


8. Madina Karsakpayeva: Experiences of Kazakhstani students with disabilities at university. An example of a public university

Madina Karsakpayeva (Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary)


The qualitative small-scale study was done as a result of Erasmus Mundus Master/Magister in Special and Inclusive Education 2015/2016.    

The study looked at application, impact and benefits of the disability support services at one higher education institution in Kazakhstan. According to National Educational plan 2020 – the Ministry of Education of Kazakhstan intend to have 70% of all schools to be inclusive. However, the number of people with special needs involved in education is even not a thousand. (Ministry of Education, Kazakhstan). 

The semi-structured interview method was used and a thematic approach was chosen to process and analyze the data collected. Six current students at a public university with different types of disability (physical, visual and hearing impairments) were recruited. This is explained by main categories existing in Kazakhstan in regards to disability type. Additionally, Seitenova and Becker (2008) stress more on explanation of disability groups in Kazakhstan. To straighten the need of such study- acceptance of such international undertakings as the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) and the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (United Nations, 2009) helped to conduct the study. 

Research questions of the study: 

• What services are provided in Kazakhstan at the university level for students with different types of disabilities? 

• How do these services assist the social and academic development of students with disabilities? 

• How do tutors utilise these services to support their students? (from students` perspective)


1) positive attitudes toward learning -   

2) lack of awareness and availability of information 

3) strong desire to be independent, and not different from peers – the finding based on date from interviews. 


The areas need to be improved by higher education institutions:

1) To provide access to information and general awareness on disability support services 

2) To organise and involve students with disabilities in extracurricular activities with their non-disabled peers

3) Establish disability support services centre in each university in the country

4) Provide monitoring training for university tutors on ways to work with students who have disabilities

5) To initiate peer-support groups to establish positive friendships among disabled and non-disabled students

6) 6)To provide reasonable accommodations for representatives of all three disability groups

7) To increase awareness among students on the practical-counselling centre`s activities; to promote it and engage all students regardless of abilities to implement inclusive environment



Salamanca Statement And Framework For Action On Special Needs Education. (1994). International Review Of Education, 40(6), Pp.495-507.

Seitenova, Ai-Gul S.; Becker, Charles M. (2008). Disability In Kazakhstan: An Evaluation Of Official Data. Social Protection Discussion Paper; No. Sp 0802. Washington, Dc: World Bank. 

9. Anett Hrabéczy: Successful students with special educational needs in higher education

Anett Hrabéczy (University of Debrecen, Hungary)


Due to the expansion in the nineties in higher education the non-traditional students appeared at universities (Attewell, Lavin, Domina & Levey, 2007; Harper & Quaye, 2009; Pusztai, 2011, Fenyves et al., 2017), including students with special educational needs (Pusztai-Szabó, 2014). Students mentioned above have a greater risk of dropping out of university, so higher education can not effectively carry out its task of reducing inequalities in society (Fenyves et al., 2017). In recent years, however, it has been observed that people with special educational needs have higher levels of education, more and more people are graduate and get university degrees (Laki, 2017).  While in 2001, 5.2% of people with disabilities have a degree, in 2011 this ratio increased to 9% (KSH, 2011). With the improvement of qualifications, it can be observed that the situation of people with disabilities in the labour market improved.  However, we know that the number of students with special educational needs is increasing in higher education, yet they have lower qualifications than the average population (KSH, 2011). Of the students with special educational needs, fewer students appear in higher education, this will further undermine their chances in finding jobs (Fogyatékosságügyi statisztikák 2009).



Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T. & Levey, T. (2007): Passing the torch: Does higher education for the disadvantaged pay off across the generations?. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Fenyves Veronika, Bácsné Bába Éva, Szabóné Szőke Réka, Kocsis Imre, Juhász Csaba, Máté Endre, Pusztai Gabriella (2017): Kísérlet a lemorzsolódás mértékének és okainak megragadására a Debreceni Egyetem Gazdaságtudományi Kar példáján

Fogyatékosságügyi statisztikák Szöveggyűjtemény (2009): 2001. évi népszámlálás 12. A fogyatékos emberek helyzete, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem Bárczi Gusztáv Gyógypedagógiai Kar Budapest

Harper, S. R. & Quaye, S. J. (2009, eds.): Student Engagement in Higher Education. Routledge, New York-London.

Laki Ildikó (2017): A magyarországi nagyothallók társadalma In: Torgyik Judit (szerk.) Válogatott tanulmányok a társadalomtudományok köréből. Konferencia helye, ideje: Párkány, Szlovákia, 2017.06.12-2017.06.13. Komárno: International Research Institute, 2017. pp. 215-226.

Pusztai Gabriella (2011): A láthatatlan kéztől a baráti kezekig. Hallgatói értelmező közösségek a felsőoktatásban. ÚMK, Budapest.

Pusztai Gabriella – Szabó Diána (2014): Felsőoktatási hallgatók és fogyatékossággal élő társaik. Kapocs, 2014/4

2011. évi népszámlálás 17. a fogyatékossággal élők helyzete és szociális ellátásuk - Központi Statisztikai Hivatal

10. Nóra Jakab: Student support during the whole student life-cycle

Nóra Jakab (University of Miskolc, Hungary)


ESG 1.4 says: Institutions should consistently apply pre-defined and published regulations covering all phases of the student "life cycle", e.g. student admission, progression, recognition and certification. ESG 1.3 declares: Institutions should ensure that the programmes are delivered in a way that encourages students to take an active role in creating the learning process, and that the assessment of students reflects this approach. The provisions of ESG 1.3 and ESG 1.4 challenges the higher education management. The presentation focuses on the student support at the University of Miskolc. One important element of student support is dropout management, which is not easy to be handled at the level of the institution having 7 different faculties and one institution. Effective dropout management can face different problems in dual education. The presentation focuses on good examples and also points out the shortages in the present student system at the University of Miskolc.

10. Dorina Anna Tóth – Tímea Ceglédi – Barbara Éva Máté-Szabó: The different patterns of the dropout according to the level and the field of education

Dorina Anna Tóth (University of Debrecen, Hungary)
Tímea Ceglédi (University of Debrecen, Hungary)
Barbara Éva Máté-Szabó (University of Debrecen, Hungary)


Our research is a part of a complex dropout-research, which main aim is the examination of the time changes, social and regional inequalities and constitutional differentiation of student dropout, appearing on a large scale and causing individual and institutional loss. As a part of this, the aim of our research is on one hand to identify the training fields and training levels with high dropout risk, further to draw the patterns of dropout based on the available countrywide data. We analyzed the database of Information System of Higher Education (Felsőoktatási Információs Rendszer, FIR) for our research, especially considering the students starting training, based on some graduation, in September 2010. 

We examined the most important features of advancements in studies, further the occurring recoils. Considering our data, the measure of dropout remarkable differs based on the training fields and type of the training, the finances of study and some demographical background as well, considering the measure of dropout and its reasons. During our analyzation, we separated 3 main types of the dropout’s reasons: financial reasons, study inefficiency and dropout caused by other reasons.  We examine in our study these types and their characteristics in three different training level: bachelor (BA/BSc), undivided course and higher-level vocational training.

Project no. 123847 has been implemented with the support provided from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary, financed under the  K_17 funding scheme.


4. Thinking about us…

Friday, 13.30-15.00, Faculty Club

Chair: Antal PIROSS (Corvinus University of Budapest)


12. Andrea Toarniczky – Andrea Klér – Zsuzsanna Kun – Éva Vajda – Vanda Harmat – Boglárka Komáromi: Coping with paradoxes or how to construct a sustainable career in academia?!

Andrea Toarniczky (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Andrea Klér (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Zsuzsanna Kun (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Éva Vajda (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Vanda Harmat (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Boglárka Komáromi (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)


Early career academics are attracted to a career in academia by the hope for professional freedom, challenging work and continuous learning. However, after the successful admission they are „relentlessly subjected to measurement, criticism and rejection …, exposing them to deep insecurities regarding their worth, their identity and their standing” (Gabriel, 2010: 769).  Early career academics experience conflicting roles and responsibilities, contradictory performance expectations, and encounter difficulties in belonging.  Lewis (2000) categorized the tensions within academia, existing at different levels (individual, group and organization) and showed that their existing combinations lead to paradoxes of belonging, learning, organizing and performing. The tensions are not simple contradictions, conflicts anymore – the paradoxes remind us that these may demand actions which are mutually exclusive, relief may seem impossible. 

The aim of study is to address these paradoxes by asking the research question: How do early career academics cope with the paradoxes? 

In order to answer our research question we did 23 narrative interviews with early career academics within a Hungarian Business School. Our aim was to uncover, which paradoxes are brought into their awareness, and what are their coping strategies. 

We have identified the two strategies „either/or” and „both - and” described in the literature (Schmidt, 2018), uncovering their meaning and some of the influencing factors too, which determine their choice. These coping strategies were answering critical incidents surfacing at different points in their career, and they were offering sustainable coping strategies across the incidents only in few cases.  A mix of individual will power and social support proved to be needed in order to adapt the chosen coping strategy across critical situations, and to transform it into a possible sustainable tactic. The study identifies different combinations of these two influencing factors, and determines their nature, relationship and impact.


Gabriel, Y. (2010): Organization Studies: A Space for Ideas, Identities and Agonies, Organization Studies, 31(6): 757-775;

Lewis, M. W. (2000) Exploring paradox: towards a more comprehensive guide, Academy of Management Review, 25(4): 760-776;

Schmidt, A. (2018): Torn academics. Lenses on roots of tensions and responses to competing logics in Higher Education, EGOS, Tallin

13. Krisztina Szegedi – Sára Csillag – Zsuzsanna Géring – Zsuzsanna Győri : The ethical values of business schools - the results of an empirical research

Krisztina Szegedi (Budapest Business School, Hungary)
Sára Csillag (Budapest Business School, Hungary)
Zsuzsanna Géring (Budapest Business School, Hungary)
Zsuzsanna Győri (Budapest Business School, Hungary)


Topic - Higher education systems and institutions face many challenges nowadays, such as meeting the needs of the new globalised generations of students, being effective and competitive and at the same time, meeting the (perceived) expectations of society to educate responsible leaders and professionals who promote sustainable development. The focus of this study is to identify the core values in-use at the business schools, which can influence the behaviour of individuals and organisations. In the world of business schools, core values refer on the one hand to the values that are to be created for society and to be transferred to students in order to develop the business sphere, on the other hand to the values that provide guidelines to the operation of the organisation and interactions with the stakeholders. The ethical values representing moral principles of the organisations are most often included in its ethical code. When developing its own code of ethics, Budapest Business School has undertaken to examine the ethical values of other universities as well as its own values.

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to summarize and compare the main ethical values that are reflected in the Code of Ethics of Business Schools in the Financial Times (FT) business school ranking and the core values in the ethics codes of universities in Hungary. Furthermore, we explored the ethical values that characterize our own business school. 

Methodology - The research team applied a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first phase, a content analysis was conducted to get information concerning what ethical values business schools consider important to draw attention to and regulate in their code of ethics. In the second phase we revealed the core values of Budapest Business School applying three different methods: an online survey using a collage-technique, managerial interviews and co-design workshops.

Key findings – When looking for similarities regarding international and domestic codes of ethics, we found that responsibility and democratic principles occurred with the same frequency in both populations. Differences occurred for example in the case of ‘integrity’, which was the second most mentioned value at FT-ranking universities but was mentioned by less than a third of the Hungarian institutions. 

Based on managerial interviews, Budapest Business School has several performance values like quality and practice orientation, but cooperation and communication should be developed. The main ethical values according to the interviews were respect, collegiality and responsibility. The online survey showed that cooperation, diversity and equal treatment are essential values in our community. As a result of co-design workshops, the core values of the BBS were determined, which are Modernity & traditions, Quality & responsibility, Partnership & respect.

14. László Horváth: From automatic bakery to astir anthill – metaphors of higher education organizations

László Horváth (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)


Organizational research in higher education dealt with the unique nature of higher education institutions (HEIs): community of scholars, political arena, organized anarchy, loosely coupled systems, symbolical management, entrepreneurial university etc. (Jensen, 2010). Previous theoretical and empirical literature focused on organizational structure (e.g.: Mintzberg (1979) and Keczer (2014): professional bureaucracy) and organizational culture (e.g. Birnbaum (1988): collegial, bureaucratic, political, anarchical and Bergquist (1992): collegial, managerial, developmental, negotiating) as well. Symbolic and cultural perspectives in organizational theory fosters the use of metaphors as symbolic constructs (Simsek, 1997) which offers insight into employees and leaders perceptions of HEIs, reflecting values and aspirations (Deshler, 1985). 

The main aim of this study is explore the perceptions of academics and administrators in Hungarian HEIs regarding their organization, in conjunction with their job characteristics and satisfaction. A questionnaire-based data collection was issued at the beginning of the 2018/2019 academic year on a representative sample of higher education staff (N=1146). The instrument contained besides basic demographic questions, the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (Cameron and Quinn, 2011) for diagnosing organizational culture and items form Hackman and Oldham’s (1975) Job Characteristics Model to assess general job satisfaction and the motivating potential of the job. An open ended question were also included, where respondents could characterized their organization or sub-unit with a metaphor. Two independent researcher coded the metaphors based on their orientation (positive, negative, neutral). Statistical analysis were conducted on the relations of the metaphor orientation with other variables (organizational culture, general job satisfaction and demographic variables). Qualitative content analysis were conducted to summarize the metaphors, identifying underlying themes and concepts.

Overall respondents used more positive metaphors (39,2%) than negative ones (24,4%). Although administrators (M=0,261) gave more positive associations than academic staff (M=0,199), the independent samples t-test showed no statistically significant differences (t(358,928)=-0,921; p=0,358). However there were significant differences between management (M=0,415) and non-management (M=0,109) staff (t(443,396)=-4,893; p<0,001). Regarding organizational culture, it seems that a more positive association is highly correlated with clan culture (internal focus and flexibility) from the Competing Values Framework (r=0,671; p<0,001) while the positive orientation of the metaphor is also closely associated with general job satisfaction (r=0,460; p<0,001). 

By exploring these relationships and the possible images of higher education organizations helps us understand better the organizational and job characteristics of academic institutions.


Bergquist, W. H. (1992): The Four Cultures of the Academy: Insights and Strategies for Improving Leadership in Collegiate Organizations. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. 

Birnbaum, R. (1988): How Colleges Work. The Cybernetics of Academic Organization and Leadership, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Cameron, K. S. and Quinn, R. E. (2011): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture. Based on the Competing Values Framework. 3rd edition. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Deshler, D. (1985): Metaphors and Values in Higher Education. Academe, 6. 22-28. 

Hackman, J. R. and Oldham, G. R. (1975): Development of job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159-170.

Jensen, H. S. (2010): The organisation of the university, Working Paper 14, EPOKE Department of Education, Aarhus University, Aarhus. URL:

Keczer, G. (2014): Az egyetemek szerepe, irányítása és működése a 21. század elején, Egyesület Közép-Európa Kutatására, Szeged.

Mintzberg, H. (1979): The Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of the Research, Prentice-Hall, New Jearsey.

Simsek, H. (1997): Metaphorical images of an organization: the power of symbolic constructs in reading change in higher education organizations. Higher Education, 33. 283-30

15. Eszter Lukács: The internationalization process at Széchenyi István University, Győr

Eszter Lukács (Széchenyi István University, Hungary)


The  internationalizing of Széchenyi István University, Győr, is critical to the institution’s competitiveness. Government grants (e.g. Human Resource Development Operational Programmes) have significantly facilitated progress. Furthermore, the adoption of the triple helix model of reciprocal linkages between government, university and industry (now expanded to a quadruple helix – with the addition of societal led innovation) has been at the core of the rapid infrastructural and educational development. 

Our most significant industry collaboration is with the German automobile manufacturer, AUDI AG. Established in Győr since 1993, and now ranking as the biggest automotive propulsion plant in the world, Audi Hungaria has an annual production of two million vehicle engines and over 123,000 cars. The company has invested over 7 billion euros in Hungary and it has been estimated that together, Audi Hungaria, their suppliers and the University employ around 30% of the city’s population. In 2015, the “Audi Hungaria School of Automotive Engineering” was founded. In this way, the company’s specialist involvement at the University is intensified by the high level of direct participation of experts in lectures and research. 

The internationalization process has necessitated a massive, dynamic infrastructural renewal of the campus, including the expansion of student accommodation facilities with the addition of two new high quality Halls of Residence. These buildings were employed to house competitors in both the 2017 European Youth Olympic Festival and the European Athletics U18 Championships. The construction of the University’s new prestigious Management Campus is also currently underway. 

Other state-of-the-art facilities include the University library.  Covering over 4,500 square metres, there are 750 seats, 250 computers, 300,000 documents and approximately 500 journals. Via online databases users can access the university's entire collection of academic materials. 

The university provides a unique sports facility-network for physical education. The cardio- and training rooms, the sports fields, the park, the river Danube and the indoor pool are all highly appreciated by international students.

As evidence of the University’s strong commitment to internationalization, the exponential rise in the number of English-taught academic programmes is significant. From just two degree programmes available in 2016/2017, for academic year 2019/2020 there will be twenty-two English-taught full degree programmes on offer, complemented by the launch of two postgraduate programmes in the field of Law and Governance.  

The process of internationalization has also been fully and positively embraced by each and every administration unit: from the Academic Registry through Student Services to the Student Union, all departments of the University are undergoing deep renewal and development. 


5. National solutions

Friday, 13.30-15.00, Room 311

Chair: Zoltan RONAY (Eötvös Lorand University)


16. Suzana Pecakovska: The curse of the small countries: trends, challenges and perspectives in  the development of a quality assurance system in Macedonian higher education

Suzana Pecakovska (Foundation Open Society, Macedonia)


The system of quality assurance (QA) in Macedonian higher education (HE) is regulated according to the “general model” for QA (van Vught & Westerheijden, 1994), while its development recognizes five development phases from the country independence to date. As the mechanisms for oversight and control of HE are changing according to the societal and political trends (Neave & Van Vught, 1991), this paper discusses the dominant trends and challenges in each of the phases. The introductory phase of QA (2002-2008) provided for the establishment of the Accreditation Board (AB) and the Evaluation Agency (EA). The second phase (2008-2010) is known by the rapid expansion, growth and dispersion of higher education at the expense of stagnation in QA and tendency for greater state control. The phase from 2010 till October, 2011, has been earmarked by the merger of the two national bodies for quality assurance into one, introduction of fines and the university ranking. The next period was linked to overregulation of HE and increasing role of the state in the context of challenged university autonomy. The new Law on HE from 2017 opened the window for independence of the Higher Education Accreditation Board, yet the country is lagging behind with its implementation. Likewise, the research conducted at four of the five state universities confirms that the Macedonian higher education institutions have partially met some the ESG ENQA standards and guidelines for internal QA. Reflecting on the research findings, the paper discusses the challenges and provides recommendations of how country can win the academic struggles for greater academic freedom, better quality and improve academic reputation in Europe.


Neave, G., & Van Vught, F. (1991). Prometheus unbound. Oxford, Eng.: Pergamon Press.

Pecakovska S. (2015) Creation of a Concept for Quality Assurance in Macedonian Higher Education – compliance with the ENQA 2005 European Standards and Guidelines for QA  (unpublished PhD dissertation, 2015)

Van Vught, F.A. and D.F. Westerheijden (1994) Towards a General Model of Quality Assessment in Higher Education. Higher Education 28(3): 355–371.


17. Carla Liege Rodrigues Pimenta – Rónay Zoltán – András Németh: National Higher Education Policies: Comparative Perspective between Portugal and Hungary

Carla Liege Rodrigues Pimenta (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
Rónay Zoltán (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
András Németh (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)


In last decades, Higher Education has gone through reforms in curriculum, teaching and management which are largely related to the transformations at the social, cultural, political and especially economic sphere. Educational policies are adapted to these new national regulations and the transnational and international demands. This panorama systemised here that fits with our research in the PhD program, which brings a preliminary work about the national policies in European Higher Education Area (EHEA), focus on Portugal and Hungary Higher Education systems. Based on these ideas, the goal of this study is to identify the meanings of quality, autonomy and democratisation expressed in official documents that regulated Portuguese and Hungarian Higher Education systems. Concerning the methodological perspective, we use a document analysis that allows us to search for similarities and differences in the policies implemented in Portugal and Hungary Higher Education systems over the years. We selected 4 documents, such as (1) Act CCIV of 2011 on Higher Education in Hungary; (2) Law of the Education System no.49/2005 30th of August (3) Act no. 369/2007, 5th of November/ Accreditation agency in Portuguese Higher Education systems; and (4) Regulation Principles for the creation of the European Higher Education Area in Portugal Act nº 107/2008, 25th of June. The data were examined through a content analysis technique, take into consideration that those documents enable us to comprehend the national commitments regarding the quality and management of Higher Education Institutions in both countries. In these midst policies in these both national systems allowed us to reflect critically on how policies are implemented; how they are being congruent with the globalised world and connected with the actors needs involving. Moreover, it illuminates how the EU quality policies are implemented in these two European countries, this study offers the subsidies to understand the differences and similarities in these HE systems and policies in relation to the dynamic systemic functions they play, and the cultural meanings that are conveyed by the different social contexts and complex realities. Therefore, the policies' analysis we cannot avoid considering that the process of globalisation has influenced national educational policies favouring an agenda based on evaluation indicators, market mechanisms and exercising control of the system. 

18. Oğuz Güner: The effectiveness of the european union's higher education policies in the context of framework programs: the case of Denmark

Oğuz Güner (Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakif University, Turkey)


The subject of this study is to discuss the contributions of the European Union’s higher education policies in the process of innovation production in a European Union’s member state, Denmark. Information has taken the workforce and machine power in the information society and the concept of innovation has emerged with the developments in information and communication technologies. Innovation concept is the main catalyst of economic growth and development in the information society. Emergence of innovation activities is directly related to science and research infrastructure and higher education policies.

The European Union aims to increase innovation capacities of the member countries by instrumentalisating higher education policies. Within this context, the contributions of higher education policies of the European Union in the context of framework programs were evaluated and the contributions of these instruments in innovation activities in Denmark were discussed.  

In this study, it has been realized that the European Union’s higher education policies contribute to innovation activities of member states positively. However, it has been understood that these contributions differentiate within all the member countries depending on their own research and innovation infrastructure and potential.

6. Universities’ and industrial partners’ collaboration

Friday, 13.30-15.00, Room 2009

Chair: Chair: Gabriella KECZER (University of Szeged)


19. György Ágoston – László Kadocsa: University of Dunaújváros - new steps for industrial cooperation

György Ágoston (University of Dunaújváros, Hungary)
László Kadocsa (University of Dunaújváros, Hungary)


The industrial relations of the University of Dunaújváros is about to change rapidly nowadays. The possibilities for collaboration with the companies in the region will be analyzed, as well as industrial relations with companies from Budapest. The so-called "dual" and special "cooperative-dual" programmes, recent changes in the Hungarian labor market. The expectations of ICT companies for our ICT programmes. Industrial relations with certain nationally significant companies (Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Robert Bosch Ltd., Evosoft Hungary Ltd.). The role of the Ecotech Nonprofit Inc. The role of the Industrial Development Center.

20. József Berács: Cooperative Education: Knowledge Workers in Higher Education

József Berács (Corvinus University of Budapest and John von Neumann University, Hungary)


The cooperative education became a hot topic in the Hungarian higher education because the new higher education strategy, developed in 2014 contained a special section about the “dual” education. Later it appeared in the Higher Education Law as well. This process – like a pilot project - started in Kecskemét, in 2012, when the Kecskemét College together with the Mercedes-Benz and Knorr-Bremse launched a new vehicle-engineering program in dual education for 25 students. The new course followed the Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg (DHBW) system, but in a general college education environment. 

After 6 years of Kecskemét and 3 years of national experience, the accumulated knowledge offers sporadic tools for evaluating specific aspects of the programs. Hesser at al. (2017) gives a broad overview of the German Dual Education based on a large, national students’ survey. They conclude, that the main attractions in dual education are: practice orientation, salary during the higher education studies and better chances on labor market after graduation. These are the goals of Hungarian students as well. In this paper we focus on the first attraction: how does the dual education fit into the practical approach of universities. The following topics will be discussed.

The education process and practical work/internship relation goes back to the role of cognitive and experience based education. We show, that the experience based education opposed to the cognitive education has greater importance in those professions (like engineering, and business education), which are based on applied sciences. Medical education and teacher programs were always keen on enhancing the practical experience. Csíkszentmihályi (1991) shows the relevance of experience in the individual life happiness, while Fazekas (2018) argues that the non-cognitive knowledge gains higher role in labor market.

The education process is no more about teacher’s centered concept, instead the learning process is emphasized (ESG-2015). Value co-creation is a new paradigm in service and B2B marketing. This concept is used for higher education industry, focusing on the talent development, especially on the less capable students, fulfilling the objective of inclusive education.

The coexistence of high research standards and cooperative education seems to be a contradiction. We argue that this is not. Top universities, like Stanford e.g., are proud of their programs because the graduates easily found good jobs. In the business area they are capable to establish new ventures. Levin (2018) shows the entrepreneurial spirit of Stanford graduates who were involved in establishing 40 000 companies, which are producing 2 500 billion USD revenues.


Csikszentmihalyi, Mihály (1991): Flow - The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Harper Perennial, (in Hungarian: Csikszentmihályi Mihály (1997): Flow – Az áramlat, A tökéletes élmény pszichológiája, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest)

ESG- European Standard Guidelines 2015, European Network of Quality Assurance, and “Intézményakkreditáció” – Önértékelési Útmutató, Magyar Felsőoktatási Akkreditációs Bizottság, 2017

Fazekas Károly (2018): Nem-kognitív készségek hiánya a munkaerőpiacon (= The lack of non-cognitive skills in the labor market), Magyar Tudomány 179(2018), 24-36

Hesser, Wilfried und Bettina Langfeldt unter Mitarbeit von Wilfried Box (2017): Das duale Studium aus Sicht der Studierenden, Helmuth Schmidt Universitat, Universitat der Bundeswehr, Hamburg, 84 pages

Levin, Jonathan (2018): The Entrepreneural Mindset Is a Catalyst for Diverse Careers, Stanford Business,  Summer 2018, page 1

21. Judit Nagy – Orsolya Diófási-Kovács: Developing the Supply Chain Management Masters Programme at Corvinus – improving education and quality assurance

Judit Nagy (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Orsolya Diófási-Kovács (Corvinus University of Budapest)


The development of the Supply Chain Management Masters program began in 2017 with an overview of education and output requirements. The program has been awarded a development support, and we needed to see what was happening within the programme for use the support effectively. We first reviewed all the courses of the programme and their alignment with the education and output requirements. For an in-depth overview, we were interviewed with the leaders of the SCM-specialized courses (9 interviews) and we got a comprehensive view of what learning outcomes the different courses can present and how they cover all the requirements expected from the programme. After that, we had to examine what kinds of learning activities are expected from students during the Masters programme, which not only develops their knowledge, but also their soft skills and how it matches with education and output requirements.

The other branch of our research was that due to the fact that the MA programme also starts in dual form, we asked our partner companies working with us in this dual education (3 companies employing 8 students in dual form), what knowledge and skills they expect from the fresh graduated Supply Chain Managers. We have determined these expectations and their match with the education and output requirements, and this way we were able to set the direction of the development of the entire programme and each courses.

We also had to work out a system of how we will measure whether our students have actually mastered the required knowledge and possessed the expected capabilities. In the Assurance of Learning system, we selected the four most important learning goals, and then we divided them into two more (three) learning objectives. We have defined observable criteria and then the specific measurements. As a result, the four learning goals are measured by 18 measurements to what extent they are realized. The first test of the measurements was carried out in the spring of 2018 by examining the results of 20 randomly selected graduate students, and based on these we initiated developments. At the next measurement, in the summer of 2018, we used the enhanced system. Using the summer experiences, we have started new developments that will be cyclically performed (continuous development, DMAIC cycle) and delivering results to education development.

Our achievements include developing the MA programme based on a comprehensive foundation research and developing methods and tools that best develop our students' knowledge and skills. How to achieve this is through a continuously developed quality assurance system. The outlined model can be a useful example for systematic analysis and developing other higher education programs.

22. Loretta Huszak: May contain traces of knowledge-transfer. The current role of universities and research institutions in regional smart specialisation and technology-transfer networks in Hungary

Loretta Huszak (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)


Universities and research institutions can become central interfaces for regional technology transfer – this is what many governments and the European Commission expect of them. (European Commission, 2014). Their role in knowledge transfer is crucial, especially within the framework of Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) of the European Union. Smart specialisation calls for regions to engage in ‘entrepreneurial discovery processes’ through which they can identify development opportunities in distinctive innovation domains. (Vallance et al, 2018) However, the impact of new strategies on the operation of universities and research institutions, especially on innovation and knowledge transfer has not yet received much critical attention in academic literature. 

In Hungary, all components of the Triple Helix Modell (Ranga and Etzkowitz, 2013) exist, and universities and research institutions are encouraged to work more closely with the private sector to enhance the relevance of their research and facilitate the use of research results by the industry. These trends create a situation where academia is increasingly held accountable by the government for technology and knowledge transfer. And in fact, universities have established organizations to commercialize the knowledge generated at research institution level, to keep existing contacts or create new ones with the industry and to join networks. But have been new research networks developed? The time has come for measuring the performance of universities and research institutions in technology transfer. 

The empirical material in the presentation is drawn from a regional examination of institutional factors and practical elements affecting the implementation of RIS3 strategy and leading to knowhow-transfer networks. The analysis was conducted 2018 in one of the central but less developed Hungarian regions (county Fejér). The aim was to examine whether the universities and research institutions in this region (county-level) have intensified their networking connections with the industry in the past ten years, for the purposes of technological and scientific knowledge dissemination and exploitation.

„Universities are a critical ‘asset’ of the regions, mainly in the less developed regions where private sector may be weak or relatively small, with low levels of research and development activity.” (European Commission, 2014, p. 83). This leads us to the research questions, 1) how far regional academia can target regional needs, 2) how far it has competences in the fields of the regional development strategy and 3) how far it is able to intensify its networking connections with the industry. Overall the presentation reveals a multifaceted picture of still emerging (and potentially conflicting) dynamics around the introduction of smart specialisation that have the potential to reconfigure the role of universities in regional innovation networks in Europe.


European Commission (2014): Boosting Open Innovation and in the European Union Independent Expert Group Report on Open Innovation and Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Transfer. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Brussels. 

Freész, Gergely (2013): Az egyetemi technológiatranszfer szerepe az innovációs folyamatokban. In: Köz-gazdaság, vol. 8, Nr. 2, p. 103-117. 

Lengyel, Balázs (2012): Egyetemi technolgógia-transzfer és spin-off vállalkozások. In: Makra Zsolt (ed.): Spin-off cégek, vállakozók és technológia-transzfer a legjelentősebb hazai egyetemeken. Szeged. p. 11-34. 

Ranga, Marina; Etzkowitz, Henry (2013): Triple Helix Systems: An Analytical Framework for Innovation Policy and Practice in the Knowledge Society. In: Industry and Higher Education, vol. 27, Nr. 4, p. 237–262. 

Vallance, Paul; Blažek, Jiří; Edwards, John; Květoň, Viktor (2017): Smart specialisation in regions with less-developed research and innovation systems: A changing role for universities? In: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, vol. 36, Nr. 2, p. 219-238.

7. Quality Assurance in Programmes

Friday, 13.30-15.00, Room 218

Chair: Pusa NASTASE (Central European University)


23. Barzan Hama Karim: Attitudes and Expectations of Teacher Candidates Regarding a Pre-service Program

Barzan Hama Karim (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)


Since its establishment in 1921 till the end of 1970s, the education system of the Iraqi government was recognized as one of the most developed systems in the Arab world, higher education especially the scientific and technological institutions were of international standard, staffed by high quality personnel (UNESCO, 2003). From the beginning of 1980 till the mid of 2000s, Iraq was involved in long wars with neighboring countries and the international communities. According to a report by UNOHC (2003), three decades of war have deteriorated the Iraqi education system and left it with critical shortcomings in many areas. Thus, the wars and international sanctions turned the best education system in the Arab world into the worst one. 

Iraqi Kurds rose against the previous regime of Iraq in 1991 and they established a regional government. One of the main challenges of the new local government faces is the limited capacities of teachers in the fields of specialty (teaching subjects) as well as teachers' outdated knowledge of their subjects they teach. (MOHE, 2010). Therefore, both ministries offered many different models of teacher education programs in order to educate new generations in respect of the needs and aims of the primary and high schools. (UNESCO, 2003) But due to war, financial crisis, international and Iraqi sanctions the Kurdish system suffered as much as the Iraqi system. After Iraqi operation freedom in 2003 and removing Saddam Hussein's regime from power by USA, once again the teacher education program is perceived as a critical issue for Kurdish education system, therefore an increasing number of teacher education programs have been opened in public universities in Iraqi Kurdistan to train specialized teachers including English teachers to teach in the basic and high schools. An important program which is offered in these programs is Viewing and Practicing. The objective of Viewing and Practicing is to prepare high quality teachers with thorough knowledge of both content and pedagogy. The goal of this paper was to examine circumstantial considerations regarding how the program is offered as well as investigating the attitudes of the students towards the program to support their educational practices. The researcher designed and distributed a questionnaire-survey to fifty students. The descriptive analysis shows that the participants have positive attitudes towards the Viewing and Practicing as an education mean to support their learning experiences. The results also demonstrate that the program has several strengths, such as practical teaching experience, studying learning theories and approaches related to language teaching. Due to the lack of research studies on the attitudes and expectations of students regarding Viewing and Practicing program; the result of the study may be useful for the policy-makers within teacher education programs to improve the current situation of the programs.



UNESCO (2003). Situation analysis of education in Iraq. Retrieved from:;

UNOHC (2003), Education in Iraq. Retrieved from this link

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (2010), A Road Map to Quality".

24. Taisia Muzafarova: Perspectives on Teachers’ Professional Development and Quality Teaching

Taisia Muzafarova (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)


Quality management has been receiving increasing attention in the Georgian higher education system since the establishment of National Center for Educational Quality Enhancement (EQE) which has introduced a number of recommended procedures to be undertaken within higher education institutions.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the understanding of quality in higher education, which reveals the inconsistencies between the views of those in administration and teaching, and to propose the objectives on closing this gap with the efforts of both groups. This paper focuses on a private higher education institution in Tbilisi, Georgia.

More attention has been paid to the personal, professional, and institutional goals discussed with quality managers and teachers at the university to reveal the perceptions and attitudes towards the professional development activities targeted at enhancing the quality of teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to collect personal stories and experiences of those involved in the process. 

The conceptual framework of this paper highlights relevant studies in the field of quality management in universities and integrates previously published articles on professional development goals and objectives. The paper also suggests the reinvention of the learning outcomes in order to serve the purpose of stating clear goals for teachers’ professional development activities.

As the results of the interviewing show the perception of quality management by teachers is often limited to administrative tracking and record-keeping, although these are mentioned as useful control mechanisms, teachers agree that the process lacks substantial elements on checking how the objectives are implemented in immediate classroom activities. 

The paper establishes the foundation for understanding the different perspectives and needs about the professional development activities targeted at quality teaching.

25. Gabriella Farkas – Georgina Nóra Tóth – András Horváth: Application of quality improvement methods in the higher education at Bánki Donát Faculty

Gabriella Farkas (Óbuda University, Hungary)
Georgina Nóra Tóth (Óbuda University, Hungary)
András Horváth (Óbuda University, Hungary)


The Bánki Donát Faculty of Mechanical and Safety Engineering at Óbuda University, the “Bánki” is a university faculty with more than 135 years history and serious traditions. Its trainings are popular and acknowledged at BSc, MSc and postgraduate levels in the technical engineering education. The management and the staff of the Faculty have the ability to create such a learning-teaching environment where the students and the teach-ers are given encouragement and support but at the same time they can realize their talent and creativity. For this reason professional and cultural events (Researchers’ Night, Lego Day, Széchenyi Exhibition), student circles and competitions (RECCS Competition of Spaghetti Bridge Building), an expanding training opportunities (criterion subjects in English and German language), blended e-learning education (e-learning materials in the Moodle system), international mobility programs provide a framework.

The Óbuda University (ÓE) has operated a certified ISO 9001 since 2004 and on this way the Bánki as well. The quality aims are determined in the quality policy within the practice oriented education has paid attention. There is large emphasis on the cleanliness of la-boratories, therefore the students and teachers can work in safe working conditions. For this reason 5S system has been introduced which is based on cleanliness and safety. 

A series of innovative solutions developed in recent years have contributed to achieving of the objectives of quality policy. In our presentation we would like to introduce these quality improvement methods which are used to evaluate the education systems.

26. Zsuzsanna Tóth – Tamás Jónás – Gábor Árva – Vivien Surman: Enhancing the reliability of Likert scale based evaluation in higher education

Zsuzsanna Tóth (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
Tamás Jónás (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
Gábor Árva (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Vivien Surman (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)


Paying more attention to quality issues has become a common trend in the development of higher education (HE) worldwide (Asif and Searcy, 2014; Deem et al., 2008). The approach of students as ‘customers’ has been increasingly accepted the reason for which is the fact that institutions growingly have to operate under forces of marketization (Bunce et al., 2017) and have to enhance primary customers’ satisfaction (Sadeh and Garkaz, 2015).

In order to evaluate the quality of services and to ascertain reliably whether the needs and requirements of students are met, it is fundamental that students’ expectations and perceptions are properly measured and correctly understood. In order to serve that requirement, there is a need to design suitable and reliable methodologies to evaluate performance and to identify appropriate measure units to highlight the achieved service performance level (Lupo, 2013).

Measuring service quality and the satisfaction of stakeholders in HE is mainly realized through the application of Likert scales utilizing either the original SERVQUAL methodology or its various modifications proposed in the HE literature. Both approaches commonly apply traditional Likert scales as they are easy to conduct and their utilization usually does not require special training. On the contrary, many critical factors have appeared recently associated with the application of these scales. To overcome these difficulties, there is an alternate approach which takes into account that the nature of most attributes related to evaluations, judgements involve subjectivity and certain imprecision (Lubiano et al., 2016; Quirós et al., 2016). Calcagnì and Lombardi (2014) and de la Rosa de Sáa et al. (2013, 2015) propose fuzzy scales to overcome the limitations of standard scales by modeling the imprecision embedded in human rating evaluations. 

This paper focuses on a challenging problem which is related to how to handle properly the inherent uncertainty of human perceptions. The current study aims to demonstrate the application of fuzzy rating scales for end-of-semester evaluation of project work courses which are not part of the traditional student evaluation of education (SEE) framework of the investigated university due to their special course features compared to traditional courses. Based on the available service quality models proposed in the HE literature, 26 statements related to the supervising processes of project work type courses have been formulated. By providing a fuzzy Likert scale to evaluate supervisors’ performance, students can express their uncertainty, their contrasting perceptions and the variability of the lecturers’ performance in a quantitative way. 

The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated on a sample of 210 evaluations demonstrating that the results of fuzzy rating scales provide a more precise reflection of students’ thinking and judgement.


Asif, M. and Searcy, C., (2014), "Determining the key capabilities required for performance excellence in higher education", Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol.25. No.1-2., pp.22-35.

Bunce, L., Baird, A. and Jones, S.E. (2017), "The student-as-consumer approach in higher education and its effects on academic performance", Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 42 No. 11, pp.1958-1978.

Calcagnì, A. and Lombardi, L. (2014), "Dynamic Fuzzy Rating Tracker (DYFRAT): a novel methodology for modeling real-time dynamic cognitive processes in rating scales", Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 24, pp.948-961.

de la Rosa de Sáa, S., Gil, M.Á., González-Rodríguez, G., López, M.T. and Lubiano, M.A. (2015), "Fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaires and their statistical analysis", IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp.111-126.

de la Rose de Sáa, S., Gil, M.Á., García, M.T.L. and Lubiano, M.A. (2013), "Fuzzy rating vs. fuzzy conversion scales: an empirical comparison through the MSE". In Synergies of Soft Computing and Statistics for Intelligent Data Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 135-143.

Deem, R., Mok, K.H. and Lucas, L. (2008), "Transforming higher education in whose image? Exploring the concept of the ‘world-class’ university in Europe and Asia", Higher Education Policy, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 83-97.

Lubiano, M.A., de Sáa, S.D.L.R., Montenegro, M., Sinova, B. and Gil, M.Á. (2016), "Descriptive analysis of responses to items in questionnaires. Why not using a fuzzy rating scale? ", Information Sciences, Vol. 360, pp.131-148.

Lupo, T. (2013), "A fuzzy ServQual based method for reliable measurements of education quality in Italian higher education area", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 40 No. 17, pp.7096-7110.

Quirós, P., Alonso, J.M. and Pancho, D.P. (2016), "Descriptive and Comparative Analysis of Human Perceptions expressed through Fuzzy Rating Scale-based Questionnaires", International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, Vol. 9 No 3, pp.450-467.

Sadeh, E. and Garkaz, M. (2015), "Explaining the mediating role of service quality between quality management enablers and students' satisfaction in higher education institutes: the perception of managers", Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 26 No. 11-12, pp.1335-1356.

8. Practical needs in curriculum – different models

Friday, 15.20-16.50, Faculty Club

Chair: Gabriella KECZER (University of Szeged)


27. Stanislav Lukac: Does studying at higher education institutions equip students with the skills relevant for their future lives? The probe into current data from Slovakia

Stanislav Lukac (MESA10, Slovakia)


In the light of quickly advancing trends on the labor market, such as automation, digitization and artificial intelligence, there lies a challenge for higher education institutions (HEIs) nowadays to reflect upon new skills and knowledge that they should equip their students with. Adaptability, creativity, critical thinking, cooperation, leadership, motivation to learn and ability to communicate in multi-faceted and international working environments represent part of a skillset brought by the current trends in global economy and are increasingly called out as substantial by employers. Do students leave HEIs after graduation with the skills that are required of them to fare well in their future lives? If not, why is that? Is it because of the attitude of students, teachers or both towards these skills? Since the Slovak employers prefer diplomas from abroad are there significant differences between what students learn in Slovakia and what they learn if they study abroad? Is what they study abroad really in line with the expectations of the employers in Slovakia? In this paper I will show the mismatch between what employers expect of university graduates and the skills that the HE graduates have. I will also look at how teaching methods contribute towards the acquisition of relevant skills. In addition, I will explore differences between what Slovak students learn in Slovakia and what they learn when they study abroad. I will draw on the substantive survey that was conducted as part of the public policy reform project ‘Learning Makes Sense’, which is unique in the scope of its research and data collection in Slovakia. Thanks to having conducted separate surveys among job recruiters and HR specialists, teachers, students at HEIs in Slovakia as well as those studying abroad, it is possible to cross-check and cross-validate the mismatch between expectations and the actual situation. The survey was based on the insights from the extensive qualitative research during which we conducted more than 170 semi-structured individual interviews with the HEI’s executives (rectors, vice-rectors, deans, vice-deans), teachers, representatives of career centres at HEIs, HR specialists and students. Additionally, we conducted 19 focus groups with the teachers and students from 17 Slovak HEIs (representing 47 faculties and different fields of study) and 8 HEIs in the Czech Republic. The questions in particular questionnaires were formulated to reflect the most pressing issues from the viewpoint of different stakeholders. This paper will elaborate upon the analysis of the collected data and provide a nuanced perspective on the expected outcomes of higher education, positioning the topic in the midst of the attitudes and opinions of students, teachers and employers.

28. Aleksandra Lis – Radosław Rybkowski – Marek Frankowicz: Excellence in Professional Higher Education in Poland

Aleksandra Lis (Jagiellonian University, Poland)
Radosław Rybkowski (Jagiellonian University, Poland)
Marek Frankowicz (Jagiellonian University, Poland)


The purpose of the paper is to analyze the concept of excellence in Polish higher vocational education and training (H-VET). Issues related to the quality assurance are one of the most important for strengthening the position of H-VET institutions in the higher education system in general. One of the approaches to H-VET quality assurance is presented by the European Association of Institutions in Higher Education (EURASHE).

Professional Higher Education in Poland is provided mainly by private and public higher education institutions (HEIs) (Rybkowski, Kędzierski), with thirty four State Higher Vocational Schools (SHVSs) among them. These institutions were established under the separate State Higher Vocational Schools Act of 1997, but since 2005 all Polish HEIs are regulated by one common Law on Higher Education. The Law on Higher Education treated vocational higher education only marginally.

For twenty years, SHVSs have become important institutions of the regions in which they were located. Their role was to provide local labor markets with top class professionals and specialists. By offering vocational education, they are strongly embedded in the local labor market, cooperate with local governments and local entrepreneurs. At the same time, in the face of the decreasing number of students, traditional academic institutions have become competitive for the SHVSs educational offer. To attract students, they must guarantee high quality of services and practices. Obvious advantages, such as closeness and lack of tuition fee, are not enough today. In 2013, according to the Central Statistical Office, only 5% of all students studying in Poland studied at the State Higher Vocational Schools.

This paper presents the analysis of thirty accreditation reports of the programs of studies offered by SHVSs, prepared and published by Polish Accreditation Committee, which is the only statutory agency responsible for higher education quality assurance in Poland. The reports, prepared by this independent agency, provides an insight into the understanding of teaching excellence as applied to the programs of H-VET. The analysis of the Polish Accreditation Committee’s reports would also define the key characteristics of H-VET teaching excellence, as perceived in Poland.


Rybkowski R., Kędzierski, M. (2017) "Zawodówki: reaktywacja. Rola wyższych szkół zawodowych w rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczym Polski", Kraków: Centrum analiz Klubu Jagiellońskiego (eng. : Vocational schools: reactivation. The role of higher vocational schools in the socio-economic development of Poland

29. Monika Pogatsnik: The impact of dual higher education on the development of non-cognitive skills

Monika Pogatsnik (Obudai University, Hungary)


The dual form of training in higher education launched in 2014 in Hungary.  The dual education students study in the institutional academic period together with the regular full-time students at their higher education institute, and parallel to their academic education they participate in the practical training. It gives the students an opportunity to join a specific training program at an enterprise. Being involved in specific "operational" practical tasks and project-oriented work enhances independent work, learning soft skills and experiencing the culture of work (Pogatsnik, 2018). In our study, we review the impact of work-based learning on the development of non-cognitive skills in technical higher education.

Today's labor market is characterized not only by the continuous transformation of the professional structure but also by the changes in the content of tasks within professions (Fazekas, 2018). The proportion and importance of tasks requiring non-cognitive skills have increased considerably. The proportion of tasks requiring social skills and successful cooperation with others is constantly increasing. Adaptation to the ongoing changes in the labor market is also essential, with non-cognitive skills playing a significant role.

School- and work-based education offer different social environments and different social experiences for the students. The dual students get feedback beside the educators and peers from their mentors, coworkers and clients. The apprentices face an older and more experienced social group. Work-based students interact with real clients, handle valuable equipment and products, they are as well role models for younger apprentices, and earn their own money. This situation speeds up the process transitioning to an adult working persons role.

We analyze the impact of work-based education (dual education) on the development of non-cognitive skills among the dual students of Obuda University. In our survey we collected the students perceptions of their personal and social skills (time keeping, attendance, get on with workmates, communication, understanding other people’s point of view, working with others, keeping feelings under control etc.) (Blades, Fauth, Gibb, 2012). The participants were from different BSc courses such as mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, technical management and IT engineers. They are in different years of their education form 1 to 4. Dual students had mainly positive views of their skills. The most commonly improved skills were communication, self-confidence, time keeping.


Blades, R., Fauth, B., Gibb, J. (2012): Measuring Employability Skills. National Children’s Bureau, London.

Fazekas, K. (2018): Non-cognitive skill shortage in labour market. Magyar Tudomány 179/1, pp.24-36.

Pogatsnik, M. (2018): Dual Education: The Win-Win Model of Collaboration between Universities and Industry. International Journal Of Engineering Pedagogy 8:(3) pp. 145-152

9. Internationalization as perspective for quality development

Friday, 15.20-16.50, Room 311

Chair: Jozsef BERÁCS (Corvinus University of Budapest / von Neumann University)


30. Anna Molnárné Sályi – Zsuzsa M. Császár: The impact of country image on international students in international student mobility

Anna Molnárné Sályi (University of Pécs, Hungary)
Zsuzsa M. Császár (University of Pécs, Hungary)


The higher education of the 21st century is arguably marked by a growing worldwide trend of internationalisation, instigated by globalisation and the expansion of higher education. The presentation will focus on the latest developments and trends in student mobility relating to foreign students in Hungarian higher education, with a special emphasis on the biggest countries of origin, based on a survey of foreign students at major Hungarian universities. The survey concentrated on students’ spending habits and how those contribute to the local economies. The presentation will espouse this information and the conlucions of said research with the notion and definition of country image and how that can influence students’ decision-making process considering their chosen higher education institute in a foreign country. The fact that country image can be viewed as a distinctive form of brand image buliding (branding) will be discussed as well as how after the transition period from communism to capitalism country image became of paramount importance in East Central Europe. An overview of this process and the milestones of this endeavour for various East Central European states, their joint efforts and some of the challenges that arose will be discussed. A concluding assertion is that higer education has entered the so-called experience economy economic sector, a recent phenomenon which needs to be further researched. 

31. Janka Huják – Jakub Dostál: Facing the challenges of Erasmus+ mobility in the periphery

Janka Huják (University of Pannonia, Hungary)
Jakub Dostál (College of Polytechnics Jihlava, Czech Republic)


The paper deals with the specifics of Erasmus+ in the periphery with the focus of smaller higher education institutions (HEIs) outside of the mainstream of international student mobility. Knowing that higher education institutions on the periphery have low volume of inward and outward student mobility, the reasons behind were questioned. It has been investigated why Erasmus + opportunity is underused.

After a precise literature review, the student mobility characteristics were investigated in the University of Pannonia and the College of Polytechnics Jihlava. The basis of our current research is an earlier survey, which investigated 239 students’ study abroad-choice in Veszprém. Both in Jihlava and Veszprém we use semi-structured interviews with the head of the international department, for the purpose of comparing the results with the past research on international students mobility barriers conducted in there.

In the University of Pannonia, it has been found that for students the most important discouraging factors for applying to the ERASMUS+ student mobility are the following: financial issues, the lack of suitable partner institution, the lack of language knowledge and the stress of leaving the family and friends behind. In Jihlava the identified discouraging factors was lack of language knowledge of the students, absence of the information system in English, limited offer of English courses and study plans non-compatibility. The possible reason for decreasing number of students going for Erasmus+ stay abroad is also fear based on the international terrorism and refugee crisis.

While universities across Europe intend to promote their internationalisation, which is often included in their strategic plans, our conclusion might serve as an inspiration for supporting such endeavours. Furthermore, if the situation with international terrorism will continue in continue in the current trend, the V4 HEIs might benefit from it in the context of being perceived as a safe destination for foreign study. As a consequence, HEIs on the periphery may experience an upturn not only in the short-term credit mobility, but in the long-term degree mobility as well.

Since is it a pre-research using case study approach, the main benefit of the paper is to summarize the current work and identify a further research steps. While it brings several new points about the international students mobility in the periphery, it needs further research for concluding more universal findings. The paper focus on the topic which rarely occur in the literature, international mobility in HEIs in the periphery. The paper also summarize possible threats and opportunities for HEIs in peripheries in V4 area regarding the ERASMUS+ student mobility.

32. Anita Kéri – Balázs Révész: What do international students think after they finished their education in Hungary? Post-studies interviews with students from the field of economics

Anita Kéri (University of Szeged, Hungary)
Balázs Révész (University of Szeged, Hungary)


Internationalization is considered to be one of the most important trends in higher education nowadays. International students have become the center of attention due to their key importance in this process. Previous studies have investigated international students and their attitude, motivation, expectations, and satisfaction before and during their study-abroad process. However, little has been known about the post-studies phase of studying abroad. This paper sheds new light on the experience students had during their stay and studies in Hungary, including topics such as previous knowledge about the country and the city of their stay, their chosen university, their expectations and their satisfaction regarding studying abroad, and their recommendations regarding the international program they had been participating in. The method chosen for this investigation was the combination of a qualitative and a quantitative method. Initially, in-depth interviews were conducted with students who had just finished their studies. Moreover, a quantitative online questionnaire was also applied to gather data from each and every international student finishing their studies at the University of Szeged, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. The investigation has revealed that students’ prior knowledge of the preferred country and city of stay is inevitable. They also gather information about their desired university and its international program mostly from the internet. It was found that students’ expectations are mostly met, but there are certain areas where they suggested additional future development. These results further our knowledge about the study-abroad process of students in retrospect, through their own eyes. We believe that our findings might be useful for the future initiatives of higher education in Hungary.

10. Nonstate sources in operating of higher education institutes

Friday, 15.20-16.50, Room 2009

Chair: Zoltan RONAY (Eötvös Lorand University)


33. Liliana Eva Donath – Monica Boldea – Ana-Maria Popa: A public – private financial perspective on investments in higher education

Liliana Eva Donath (West University Timisoara, Romania)
Monica Boldea (West University Timisoara, Romania)
Ana-Maria Popa (West University Timisoara, Romania)


The research had as starting point the following hypothesis: the mindful correlation of the private and the public sector in the educational process is absolutely necessary, in order to support the individuals’ efforts to acquire lifelong learning and to allow them access to the labor market. The study also considers that in the case of developed systems, an integrative part of the educational policies is the tripartite relationship established between the state, the employer and the academic environment, a best practice representation that we aim to resort to in this study.

The immediate reality however shows that the provision of educational services includes a wide range of resources, including infrastructure, human capital, tools, technologies and assistance. Also, higher education institutions are known to constantly get included in ongoing debates on the future sustainability of the tertiary education, given the labor market dynamics and skills required by employers that are also in continuous change (including the digital ones). Given this context highlighted was the need to integrate best practice methods and solutions put forward by companies to the academic environment as a means of adapting the changing nature of education while preserving the role of universities in society. 

The second part of our study is based on the example set by some European countries that have managed to achieve performance that goes beyond the limits set out in European milieus and strategic documents on some key aspects of education and training. In the same vein we highlight the experience of the academic environment in Timisoara regarding the complementarity of funding sources so that the objective of a good quality education can be met as well as the largest possible integration of graduates in the labor market.

The third part focuses on the analysis of needs expressed both by employers and students, who are the main beneficiaries of university education. Thus, highlighted are the results identified and data gathered through interviews with influential companies in Region West, long-term partners of the West University, to which were added the results of the questionnaire applied to a focus group comprising 313 students in the Timisoara University Center. There were also identified reasons for dropping out of school, as well as the prospects shown to studies and related funding becoming more flexible, so that the educational system should retain a continually growing number of students.

The present study does not overlook the behavioral and educational aspects acquired through previous educational programs, providing collaborative education solutions. There have been identified issues that can serve as best practice methods, which are easily transferable, can be taken over and eventually generalized.

35. Gabriella Pusztai – Enikő Maior – Zsuzsanna Karászi: Church Contributions to the Transformation of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

Gabriella Pusztai (University of Debrecen, Hungary)
Enikő Maior (Partium Christian University, Romania)
Zsuzsanna Karászi (University of Debrecen, Hungary)


After three decades of the transformation process in post-communist countries the contributions of the churches to the new higher education systems and policies proved to be crucial. First of all, they had new visions on higher education influenced earlier by party-ideology. Secondly, they reached social-cultural groups that were not preferred by former party-policy. They put higher education closer to regions and territories considered not important by the former regimes (deprived territories with ethnic and national minorities, as well as religious minorities and minority denominations). With these inputs churches and denominations became the important actors of the new higher education policies as well as the transformation processes in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. 

In our research, we are investigating the answer for the question, how the managers imagine the situation of their higher education institutions in the international area of higher education full of competition. We interviewed managers of public and ecclesiastical higher education institutions from Hungary and also from the cross-border areas. 

11. Competitions in Higher Education

Friday, 15.20-16.50, Room 218

Chair: Antal PIROSS (Corvinus University of Budapest)


36. László Csató – Csaba Tóth: A universal university ranking from the preferences of the applicants

László Csató (MTA SZTAKI and Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)
Csaba Tóth (MTA KRTK and Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)


The global expansion of higher education has created an increasing demand for the comparison of universities and has inspired the development of ranking systems or league tables around the world. These rankings are usually based on the composition of various factors, namely, they are indices with a number of moving parts. Therefore, this approach is widely criticised for its sensitivity. Nevertheless, college ranking remains a transparent tool of fair evaluation for the public despite the lack of consensus in the appropriate methodology.

We propose a new higher education ranking from the revealed preferences of the applicants. Our method is based on pairwise comparisons. Universities play matches against each other, and an institution defeats another in a match if it is preferred by a student to the other. Thus each applicant provides a tournament, and the suggested procedure aggregates all information into a common preference matrix in order to derive a ranking. It is essentially parameter-free, independent of an arbitrary choice of factors and component weights, and has a straightforward motivation: we are able to implicitly weight college characteristics by the degree to which the applicants collectively care about them.

We exploit administrative data in Hungary, a country which has a centralised system of admissions to higher education designed such that the derivation of revealed preferences is relatively obvious as a student is admitted to the first programme where the score-limit is achieved. The key to our methodology is the derivation of the aggregated preference matrix. After that, any well-known scoring procedures can be applied to rank the institutions, keeping in mind that there does not exist a perfect solution as recent impossibility results show.

The suggested procedure is implemented for ranking faculties in the Hungarian higher education between 2001 and 2016. We demonstrate that the ranking given by the least squares method has favourable theoretical properties, and performs well in practice, too: it is hardly sensitive to the choice of the preference matrix, and it reflects the revealed preferences better than the alternative procedures.

Our ranking has important policy implications for higher education management. First, it reveals that the judgements of the applicants have become more diverse in the period considered. Second, Dentistry and Medicine faculties obtain excellent positions, which has an obvious, intuitive explanation: the number of applicants who want to be a doctor but choose another field if this dream is not achievable is significantly greater than the number of applicants employing an opposite strategy. Third, while the rankings are relatively robust across the years, some faculties have significantly improved their prestige among the applicants. Identification of the reasons behind these successful strategies remains a topic of future research.

37. Noémi Horváth – Roland Molontay – Mihály Szabó: Who are the most important „suppliers” for universities? – Ranking secondary schools based on their students’ university performance

Noémi Horváth (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Roland Molontay (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Mihály Szabó (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)


Considering the intensifying competition in the higher education sector, it is getting increasingly more important for universities to identify their best „suppliers”, i.e. the secondary schools from where the best performing students come. It can help in planning promotional campaigns and outreach programs. 

The most common approach is relying on general ranking of secondary schools (e.g. [1, 2] for Hungarian secondary schools). On the other hand, a drawback of these traditional rankings is that they mostly rely on data that is available of the students at the time of graduation from their secondary school, but they do not consider the further performance of the students in the higher education. Another disadvantage that these rankings cannot be tailored for specific disciplines, since a school might train excellent future economists, but poor engineers.

In this project, we introduce a new approach for ranking secondary schools based on their students’ performance in university. Our study is based on the analysis of the academic performance of ~33000 students from Budapest University of Technology and Economics using data from Neptun educational administration system spanning 14 semesters between 2010 and 2017. 

Our methodology ranks secondary schools according to ten aspects, mostly based on academic performance related metrics of students coming from a given school, e.g. these metrics include a ratio of dropped-out students, GPA of the students, and the qualification of their diplomas.

We also present our software - this innovation, which enables users to select different aspects that serve as the base of the ranking, and with this feature they can select the faculties of interests. The software determines the ranking of the „supplying” secondary schools for the selected faculty based on the pre-defined aspects. To eliminate the distortion effect of potential edge cases, we introduced some suspension mechanics to the business logic of our application. 

We compare our results to the outcome of other existing rankings of Hungarian secondary schools and we demonstrate significant differences. We also show that it is worth considering faculty sub-rankings, since a secondary school that sends well-performing students for one faculty may underperform regarding another faculty.

[1]: HVG Középiskolai Rangsor


38. Samir Srairi: The efficiency of Tunisian universities: An application of a two-stage  DEA approach

Samir Srairi (University of Manouba, Tunesia)


By using a non-parametric approach, this paper examines the relative efficiency of eleven public universities in Tunisia during the period 2009-2013. For this purpose, we conduct a two - stage analysis. First, we evaluate three efficiency scores to examine trends over time and then we conduct a comparative efficiency analysis on university size. Second, we attempt to determine the sources of university efficiency by regressing the efficiency scores against a set of environmental variables. Empirical results indicate that after 2011 efficiency scores for all universities is decreased and the most technical inefficiencies is related to scale inefficiency rather than managerial inefficiency. Our findings also reveal that medium and small universities are more efficient than large universities. Furthermore, the Tobit regression analysis suggests that the location of university in development region, a higher share of professors and associate professors, a higher number of women in academic staff and a better quality of student in secondary education improve the efficiency of the university. Finally, we find that the size of university and the load per teacher have a negative impact on the technical efficiency of university.

12. Innovations and new possibilities in higher education

Friday, 15.20-16.50, Acquarium Room

Chair: Pusa NASTASE (Central European University)


38. József Fülöp – András Derényi: Mutual interaction of strategic university planning and campus construction: the case of MOME

József Fülöp (Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design, Hungary)
András Derényi (Institute for Educational Research and Development, Hungary)


The Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design in Budapest made a significant professional turn in the past decade: redefined her approaches to the different fields of art and design, and has become an internationally conspicuous and well-awarded university. Meanwhile she suffered from outdated technical facilities, underdeveloped infrastructures and scattered locations of operation. As a next renewal in 2014, a new vision for a creative academic centre, future strategic plans of operation, and an analysis of adequate space structure alternatives have been developed. The plan drew the attention of the Government who has allocated remarkable resources to reconstruct the campus and the whole university infrastructure.

The future strategic plan and the planned learning and workshop space allocation envisaged by architects resulted in a new university centred around three poles: an academic centre of programmes and degrees, a technology park with studios and workshop spaces, and an innovation and knowledge centre, a kind of creative hub. The new intellectual and physical structure demanded new approaches and reorganisation of the university organisation as a whole and of each centre in its own; of the maintenance processes, of the business processes, of the governance model, of the HR management, of the performance-incentives processes and so on. It has soon become clear that shift to a new model of institutional status and operation is inevitable.

The presentation will show the case of the remodelling process, highlighting the mutually supportive nature of professional strategic planning, architecture, master planning of building and reconstruction, implementation of the construction, and redesigning of different business processes from reorganising the academic school and programme structure to redesigning the human resource allocations to reconsidering governance structure and daily management processes. Authors conclude that campus construction works and planning of new business model and processes have coercive effect on one another and thus generate concentrated attention and efforts as well as focused actions of redesign in a relatively short time.

39. István Németh: The apps and infrastructure cycle in the higher education

István Németh (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)


Recently a New York-based venture capital firm while expanding into the crypto space posted a blog which has gotten a lot of attention. The subject was whether the right thing to do now supporting the crypto space expansion is to build a better infrastructure (base chains, wallets and browsers) or to build breakout applications that popularize the platform. They concluded, first apps inspire infrastructure, then the developed infrastructure enables new apps. Platforms evolve from an iterative cycle of apps and infrastructure.

But how is this relevant to the higher education platform? Higher education by tradition exists as a network of prestigious institutions for the creation and dispersion of knowledge and their basic “apps” are the various academic degree programs they offer. So, higher education is in the same business as the not so prestigious World Wide Web. The Web started out as a simple information space but became much more than originally it was intended to be and nowadays it is going through a revolution called Web 3.0. This many people ponder will bring us the use of advanced artificial intelligence by also factoring in the human intelligence using social media. But an artificially intelligent web could give us virtual assistants augmenting the efficiency of our work and everyday life, and with the crypto space developments utilizing blockchain technology doing it all securely. Interesting, yet not these predictions are the most important about Web 3.0, but the fact that it will be a huge catalyst in the evolution of how the internet is used in the future. The ever-present Web 3.0 puts the internet at the center of both our work and our play and most importantly for us how we share and utilize knowledge. Accompanying the development of Web 3.0 a (r)evolution of concepts is taking place now in fields like management, marketing, organizational design, and business development. Companies and their employees are trying to get to grips with the changes through old training practices; with that, they can memorize theory, but they don’t learn how to put that theory into practice in the real world of work.

So, I ask the question, did we, the higher education learning platform the primary distributor of quality knowledge do everything to aid society going through these changes? Is higher education still in charge of the evolution of the learning platform? By looking at today’s reality, the answer is no to both questions and this can only be changed through a major platform shift. In our presentation we will argue that the teacher training program is the key breakout “app” which will inspire the platform shift in higher education and show a pilot program we started in the ELTE Savaria University Center to redesign the methodology of how future teachers are trained by merging the use of new technology, learning and performing in line with the Learning 3.0 concept.

40. Gábor Király – Zsuzsanna Géring: (Un)Bundling forces of HE and possible answers: new experimental models

Gábor Király (Budapest Business School, Hungary)
Zsuzsanna Géring (Budapest Business School, Hungary)


We can see a process in recent years that several products and services (most notable examples: musical albums, flights, television channel packages) are broken up, that is they are “unbundled”, even though they were considered a unit before. Even if bundling, unbundling and rebundling processes have always characterised higher education (HE), unbundling is a relatively new concept in HE studies, questioning whether higher education institutions (HEIs) need to fulfil all their functions (teaching, research and service as the main ones) presently considered as part of the “whole package”. Therefore, our aim is to examine different possible strategies HEIs could follow in the future and to show examples of experimental models as possible answers to these challenges.

According to our opinion, there are three main HEI-strategies for the future in terms of bundling and/or unbundling. The first is resisting unbundling that is keeping the main components of HE together by reaching or maintaining excellence and powerful brand. This strategy can be found at and suits typically the so-called “world-class” elite universities. The second possible way to react the changing landscape of HE sector is creative rebundling. This means creating new combinations from the existing functions or components of HEI by rebundling or shifting emphasis between them. Both traditional and new institutions might try to find new synergies between existing functions such as research & teaching or teaching & service and in so doing find their place in the HE ecosystem. The third scenario open to HEIs is specialised unbundling by providing one function very well (for example teaching or validation of knowledge) and finding niche markets where they can survive or even become the dominant players. 

Although we have not witnessed earth-shaking and ground-breaking changes is HE sector yet, there are signs of transformation and efforts to move forward in the direction of the before-mentioned strategies. In the second half of the presentation we offer three examples in connection with these strategies: Oxford University (UK) for resisting unbundling, Aalto University (Finland) for creative rebundling and Minerva (US) for specialised unbundling. These examples delineate certain pathways for transformations that might be inevitable and already under way in the HE field presupposing a much higher level of diversity in the institutional ecosystem.